The animal cell endoplasmic reticulum or ER is one of important organelles in cells of eukaryotic organisms that help to perform metabolism, produce and transport certain products needed by the cell. All cell types have it except for spermatozoa and red blood cells. It has shape similar to an elongated interlaced net of tubules that contains flat, membrane-wrapped pouch called cisternae. Endoplasmic Reticulum consists of two types that work together to create it. One type with studded ribosomes has a coarse and bouncy surface called the Rough ER and it produce and transport proteins with the available ribosomes. An animal cell endoplasmic reticulum that helps in detoxification, carbohydrate metabolism and produces lipids with the tube-like shaped part is called the Smooth ER.
Animal Cell Endoplasmic Reticulum: Rough ER
A part of the Endoplasmic Reticulum is the rough Endoplasmic Reticulum which works together with the smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum to form ER. Ribosomes are present throughout the membrane that exceed along Messenger RNA during the membrane into the channel which gives it the rough Endoplasmic Reticulum name due to a very coarse and bumpy ribosomes. The rough ER produces proteins and removes amino acids and polypeptides from the cytosol as it works together with the ribosomes in its membrane. It also produces hemoglobin as it combines four polypeptides. There are some proteins get into the lumen or area inside the animal cell endoplasmic reticulum while others enter the real membrane for processing. Proteins are creased in the lumen to generate the structures needed by other organelles. Other proteins are sent to the Golgi Apparatus to be refined. And then they are stored in vesicles to be transported to other needing organelles. The Rough ER principally produces, creases, controls and sends proteins.
Animal Cell Endoplasmic Reticulum: Smooth ER
The Smooth ER is a pipe-like organelle that becomes a system of tubes all through the cytoplasm. The lumen or the inside of the smooth ER is enclosed by a fairly discrete phospholipid membrane unlike the Rough ER. It has a smooth appearance as it is not studded with ribosomes. Its main function includes supporting metabolisms and producing lipids. It helps breaking down glucose using glycogen in liver cells. In the endocrine glands and adrenal cortex, it helps to produce steroid hormones. The Smooth ER also helps to detoxify macrobiotic substance and alter them into water-soluble substance. The smooth animal cell endoplasmic reticulum can detoxify an alcohol chemical or certain negative substance by twice over its surface area when needed in only a few days.